Biology and Biological Control of Exotic True Thistles

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This manual addresses the biological control of nine exotic thistles present in western North America. Exotic thistles currently infest millions of acres across the United States, primarily occurring along roadways, waterways, agricultural fields, and in rangelands, pastures, forests, and disturbed areas. They are responsible for millions of dollars of damage annually in reduced agricultural yields and lowered forage value in grazing systems. Exotic invasive thistles can also displace native vegetation, negatively impacting wildlife and threatening the delicate ecological balance within many habitats. 

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